A brief History and Overview of Ukraine: Environment of Ukraine?

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe that is the second-most populous country on the continent after Russia. In the north-central part of the country, on the banks of the Dnieper River, is the capital city of Kyiv (Kiev).

A brief History and Overview of Ukraine
A Brief History and Overview of Ukraine

It was only in the late twentieth century that Ukraine achieved full independence from Poland-Lithuania, Russia, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, following long periods of successive dominance by these three countries (U.S.S.R.). After a brief time of independence in 1918–20, areas of western Ukraine were administered by Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia in the interwar era between the two World Wars, and Ukraine later became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (S.S.R.). At a time when the Soviet Union was disintegrating in the late 1990s and early 1990s, the Ukrainian S.S.R.’s legislature declared sovereignty (on July 16, 1990) and then outright independence (on August 24, 1991), a step that was later validated by public acceptance in a plebiscite (December 1, 1991). Ukraine acquired complete independence from the Soviet Union in December 1991, following the disintegration of the Soviet Union. A new name for the country was given to it: Ukraine. It also had a role in the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which was formed by former Soviet republics to create an association of independent states.

If you want to read a more detailed history of the Russia & Ukraine War Crisis, please click here.


Ukraine is bordered on the north by Belarus, on the east by Russia, on the south by the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea, on the southwest by Moldova and Romania, and on the west by Hungary, Slovakia, and Poland. Ukraine is the tenth most populous country in the world. Ukraine and Russia are separated by the Kerch Strait, which joins the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea in the country's far southeast.


Ukraine occupies a section of the Russian Plain that is located in the southwest (East European Plain). There are essentially no mountains in the country, which are mostly flat plains with an average elevation of 574 feet (175 meters) above sea level. Mountainous regions such as the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains are found only on the country’s borders and cover only a small fraction of the country’s total land area (less than 5 per cent). The Ukrainian landscape, despite its monotony, has some variety: its plains are interrupted by mountains, which run in a continuous belt from the northwest to the southeast, as well as by lowland regions.

Located between the middle reaches of the Dnieper (Dnipro) and Southern Buh (Pivdennyy Buh, or the Boh) rivers in west-central Ukraine, this rolling plain is the country’s largest highland area. It is cut through by numerous river valleys, ravines, and gorges, some of which are more than 1,000 feet (300 metres) deep, making it the world’s largest highland area. Mountain Kamula rises to 1,545 feet (471 metres) at its highest point, which is on the western border of the Dnieper Upland. The steep Volyn-Podilsk Upland borders the Dnieper Upland on the eastern border. The Carpathian Mountains, which stretch for more than 150 miles west of the Volyn-Podilsk Upland in extreme western Ukraine and are considered one of the country’s most scenic regions, are located west of the Volyn-Podolsk Upland (240 km). The mountains range in height from approximately 2,000 feet (600 meters) to approximately 6,500 feet (2,000 metres), with Mount Hoverla, the highest point in the country, standing at 6,762 feet (2,061 metres) above sea level. The low uplands of Ukraine’s northeastern and southeastern regions are dominated by low mountains that rarely rise above 1,000 feet in elevation (300 meters).

The Pripet Marshes (Polissya), which are located in the northern region of Ukraine and are traversed by several river basins, are considered to be among the country’s lowlands. The Dnieper Lowland, located in east-central Ukraine, is flat in the west and gently rolling in the east. It is flat in the west and gently rolling in the east. The Black Sea and the Sea of Azov are separated by lowland to the south, which has a level surface broken only by modest rises and shallow depressions, and which dips gently toward the Black Sea. It is common to see narrow, sandy spits of land jutting out into the water along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov coasts, with some as long as 70 miles (113 km) and as wide as less than 5 miles (8 km) on the Arabat Spit, which is about 70 miles (113 km) long and as wide as less than 8 km on the Arabat Spit.

The southern lowland extends northward into the Crimean Peninsula, where it is known as the North Crimean Lowland. The peninsula, which is a significant protrusion into the Black Sea, is joined to the mainland by the Perekop Isthmus, which is a narrow strip of land. The Crimean Mountains go along the peninsula’s southern coastline. Mount Roman-Kosh, with its elevation of 5,069 feet (1,545 meters), is the highest peak in the mountains.

The climate of Ukraine:

Ukraine is located in a temperate climatic zone influenced by relatively warm and humid air from the Atlantic Ocean, which influences its climate. Winters in the western United States are significantly milder than those in the eastern United States. When it comes to summer temperatures, on the other hand, the east frequently has higher temperatures than the west. The average yearly temperature varies from 42–45 degrees Fahrenheit (5.5–7 degrees Celsius) in the north to 52–55 degrees Fahrenheit (11–13 degrees Celsius) in the south. The average temperature in January, the coldest month of the year, is approximately 26 degrees Fahrenheit (3 degrees Celsius) in the southwest and approximately 18 degrees Fahrenheit (8 degrees Celsius) in the northeast. The average temperature in July, the hottest month of the year, is approximately 73 degrees Fahrenheit (23 degrees Celsius) in the southeast and approximately 64 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celsius) in the northwest.

There is a seasonal variation in precipitation, with two to three times as much falling in the warmer months as in the winter. The wettest months are typically June and July, with the driest months being February and March. Late November and early December are the most common months for snowfall; the depth of the accumulation ranges from a few inches in the steppe region (in the south) to several feet in the Carpathians. Western Ukraine, particularly the Carpathian Mountains region, receives the most annual precipitation—more than 47 inches—compared to the rest of the country (1,200 mm). Low-lying areas near the Black Sea and in Crimea, on the other hand, receive less than 16 inches (400 mm) of rain per year. The remaining regions of Ukraine receive between 16 and 24 inches (400 and 600 mm) of precipitation per year.

In contrast to the rest of Ukraine, the southern shore of Crimea has a mild, soft temperature reminiscent of the Mediterranean region. Winters are moderate and rainy, with minimal snow, and the average temperature in January is 39 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius). The summers are dry and hot, with an average July temperature of 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius).

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